from open pit to underground

Optimising Open Pit to Underground Cut-over: Part Two ...

Planning to mine a deposit from both open pit and underground (sometimes at the same time) is complex. Part two of our article on Optimising Open Pit to Underground Cut-over discusses the three typical approaches to determining the cut-over point.

Optimising Open Pit to Underground Cut-over: Part One ...

Many mines combine open pit with underground mining, and on many occasions the underground mine is an extension of the open-pit. This article is the first of two articles that looks at some of the challenges associated with this situation, and some methods with which to determine the cut-over point from open pit to underground mining and the implications these have on project value.

Chuquicamata Underground Mine - Hatch

The Chuquicamata underground mine will allow Codelco to exploit the remaining resources located below the current ore deposit until 2058. The project will transition one of the world's largest open-pit mines into an underground mine, one of the largest, most efficient, and advanced in the world.

Determining the open pit to underground transition: A new ...

between its open pit value and its underground value. The assumption underpinning this is that for a block that can be mined by either method, if it is not mined by open pit method, it will be mined by underground method. We will henceforth refer to this as the opportunity cost approach. Camus (1992)

Open-pit mining - Wikipedia

Open-pit mining is to be considered one of the most dangerous sectors in the industrial world. It causes significant effects to miners health, as well as damage to the ecological land. Open-pit mining causes changes to vegetation, soil, and bedrock, which ultimately contributes to changes in surface hydrology, groundwater levels, and flow paths.

Underground v.s. Surface Coal Mines: Is Deep Drilling ...

Although both methods have their benefits and drawbacks, underground drilling may just be the cost worthy selection for you Mining for coal depends on many variables. The geology and environmental aspects play a vital role, but depth and quality of the seam is what brings home the bacon. ... Open-pit mining utilizes blasting and mineral ...

Open Pit to Underground Transition - Minxcon Group

the underground mine is typically an extension of the pit. As open pit mining deepens the stripping ratio typically increases, increasing the overall mining costs. As a result companies often strategically transition between surface and underground to maximise project value and to increase resource extraction.

TRANSITION FROM OPEN PIT TO UNDERGROUND MINING …

underground mining at Chuquicamata. It is important to note that the mine plan must consider the following issues: Optimization of the open pit. Open pit closure. Possible interaction between the open pit and underground mining. Underground mining. Also, during the development of the pre-feasibility engineering studies (20 months) the

Open pit to underground transition - srk.com

SRK carried out a scoping study on an existing open pit operation (12 Mtpa) that is soon to be reaching a depth where the mine will need to transition to a large-scale underground mining method. The goal was to provide production continuity at a rate that will still be suitable to maximise use of the existing surface processing facilities. The ore body dips below the bottom of the planned open ...

Gran Colombia Gold to switch Marmato project from open pit ...

Oct 04, 2017· Residents mostly opposed the miner's intention of flattening a mountain to create an open pit, which will not longer be an issue under the proposed underground extraction style.

Open-Pit Mining Methods

Open-pit mining methods are applicable to mining ore deposits that apex at or near the surface. If the deposit apexes below the surface, the overburden and barren capping overlying the ore must be removed in advance of open-pit mining. The removal of this material is known as stripping.

Open Pit To Underground Transition - Cave Mining Forum

SRK carried out a scoping study on an existing open pit operation (12 Mtpa) that is soon to be reaching a depth where the mine will need to transition to a large-scale underground mining method. The goal was to provide production continuity at a rate that will still be suitable to maximise use of the

Transition from open-pit to underground in the case of ...

Abstract. Geological and economic modeling of an ore body and also optimization of the depth at which transition is made from open-pit to underground mining is an important part of the mining design process in large and massive deposits.

An approach towards ascertaining open-pit to …

An approach towards ascertaining open-pit to underground transition depth Eezzaddin Bakhtavar †, Koroush Shahriar †, Kazem Oraee ‡ † Department of Mining …

Open Pit to Underground: Digging Into the Different Types ...

Open Pit Mining. Used in situations where valuable minerals and rock are found close to the surface, open pit mining is the process of digging up minerals and rock from the surface through an open pit or burrow. Exposure to the surface is maintained throughout the mining technique of open pit mining.

Open pit and underground mines, quarries - SIXENSE Soldata

Managing slope stability on open pits and tailing dams is a complex process with serious consequences if something goes wrong. The older the mine site, the greater the risk which makes integrated geotechnical monitoring of paramount importance to mining companies.

Open pit to underground transition - asia-pacific.srk.com

SRK carried out a scoping study on an existing open pit operation (12 Mtpa) that is soon to be reaching a depth where the mine will need to transition to a large-scale underground mining method. The goal was to provide production continuity at a rate that will still be suitable to maximise use of the existing surface processing facilities. The ore body dips below the bottom of the planned open ...

How to profit from low-grade gold mines | MINING.com

Dec 23, 2018· Generally speaking, one gram per tonne works for open-pit mines, but underground gold mines require at least 2.5 g/t to be economic. Open-pit …

Optimising a Combined Open Pit and Underground Strategic ...

A large open pit is planned at the site of an existing underground mine. Strategic planning work has been undertaken to investigate the project value associated with an expansion of underground operations in conjunction with the proposed pit. Previous analysis determined that any depletion of the available pit resource that changes the optimum pushback sequence...

How to Cook a Pig in a Pit - thespruceeats.com

This can be done by covering the pit in dirt but then you'll have to dig it all out later. You can use a large sheet of metal, you need to cut off the air from getting into the pit. Otherwise, the burlap and then the meat will burn. By covering the pit, you maintain a constant temperature that is perfect for cooking.

Open-Pit to Underground Transition Optimiser - ThreeDify Inc

GeoMine Optunimizer (Optunimizer) is an Open-pit to Underground Transition Optimizer. Optunimizer allows a mine planner to determine the optimal transition zone from open-pit to underground mining with the objective of maximizing total profit of the entire mine. Optunimizer is built on top of three ThreeDify optimizers: FlowPit for pit ...

Top 10 deep open-pit mines - Mining Technology

Sep 26, 2013· The deepest open pit mines are scattered geographically across the world unlike the deepest underground mines, which are mostly concentrated in South Africa. The majority of the deepest open pit operations in the world are copper producing mines. Mining-technology profiles the …

High-grade gold-copper open pit and underground mine

Access to high-grade underground ore was brought forward by two years. 33% mine productivity rate increase from 1.2 Mtpa to 1.6 Mtpa over a longer underground mine life. Reduced open pit waste mining by nearly 70 million tonnes. Improved project economics including …

Transition from Open-Pit to Underground as a New ...

When open pit mining is transited to underground, boundary pillar is the critical safety insurance [1] [2][3]. Boundary pillar could not only avoid mutual impact of the open pit production and ...

Major Open-Pit Copper Mines Move Underground | E & MJ

The world's largest copper and gold mine, Freeport McMoRan Copper & Gold's Grasberg mine in Papua, Indonesia, will reach its open-pit limits and head underground in 2016. Similarly, Codelco's Chuquicamata mine, one of the largest open-pit copper mines in Chile will do the same in 2018.

Open pit to underground transition - na.srk.com

SRK carried out a scoping study on an existing open pit operation (12 Mtpa) that is soon to be reaching a depth where the mine will need to transition to a large-scale underground mining method. The goal was to provide production continuity at a rate that will still be suitable to maximise use of the existing surface processing facilities. The ore body dips below the bottom of the planned open ...

Open Pit to Underground - ausimm.com

In such cases, surface plants and critical underground facilities such as conveyer tunnels, access ramps, ore passes, hoisting shafts and ventilation shafts are often located much closer to the pit rim and the orebody than is desirable for the deeper mining situation.

Optimising combined open pit and underground strategic ...

AbstractThis paper examines the case of a large open pit that is being planned at the site of an existing underground mine. Strategic planning work is undertaken to investigate the project value associated with an expansion of underground operations in conjunction with the proposed pit. Previous analysis by mine planners has determined that any depletion of the available open pit resource that ...